its probably sulking because you haven't been paying it enough attention
hmmm.. odd though, theres no reason it shouldn't at least turn up as a DFU device.
really you need to proceed as you would with any other usb device on linux...
- try a different usb cable (make sure its a data cable, not just power)
- dont use a usb hub, try to eliminate any other possible issues
- check logs and device mapping using dmesg and lsusb ,
- check udev rules. (though this wont stop it appearing)
when checking the logs, what you really want to see is if any device is being seen by linux.
even if a device is completely unrecognised by linux, it should still appear on the device tree and something come up in the console logs.
if its not, then that sounds like hardware/cables ... if something does appear sounds more like OS/firmware.
Id also connect it to a mac or windows machine and see if that can see it in either mode... to determine if its a hardware issue, or just your linux setup. (mac is preferable, as has less variables than windows )
you could also try holding down S2 whilst booting to see if it then appears to work in normal mode (this prevents any auto start patch loading) , but frankly it sounds like you have a USB connection issue... either due to OS configuration or bad cable/hardware